South African Journal of Childhood Education

Journal focus: provides a forum for the dissemination of research in childhood learning and development and the care and education of children from birth to 12 years.
Editor: Elizabeth Henning ,  University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
Homepage | Editorial Team | Twitter
ACTIVE (483 Records)

We invite you to explore AOSIS Library


Browse record per page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >>  (301 - 400 of 483 Items)
  • Foundation phase teachers’ interpretation of the life skills programme with regard to...
    Beni, Saritha; Stears, Michele; James, Angela
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 7, No 1 (2017); 14 pages
    2017-05-31
    View Record | View Original
  • Acknowledgement to reviewers
    Office, Editorial
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016)
    2017-05-31
    View Record | View Original
  • Teacher education students’ struggles with group work in service learning
    Petersen, Nadine; Petker, Gadija
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 7, No 1 (2017); 8 pages
    2017-05-19
    View Record | View Original
  • Children as stakeholders in education: Does their voice matter?
    Nthontho, Maitumeleng
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 7, No 1 (2017); 7 pages
    2017-04-28
    View Record | View Original
  • The difficulty level of a national assessment of Grade 9 mathematics: The case of five...
    Bansilal, Sarah
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 7, No 1 (2017); 8 pages
    2017-03-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Work-integrated learning within the reading literacy component of foundation phase...
    Barends, Zelda; Nel, Carisma
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 7, No 1 (2017); 13 pages
    2017-03-23
    View Record | View Original
  • Sources of inequality in South African early child development services
    Aubrey, Carol
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 7, No 1 (2017); 9 pages
    2017-03-22
    View Record | View Original
  • The influence of executive function challenges on the behavioural adaptation of one...
    de Jager, Petronella; Condy, Janet
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 7, No 1 (2017); 11 pages
    2017-03-22
    View Record | View Original
  • Reading as learning in the primary school
    Henning, Elizabeth
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 6 pages
    2016-12-15
    View Record | View Original
  • Early numeracy performance of South African school beginners
    Aunio, Pirjo; Mononen, Riikka; Ragpot, Lara; Törmänen, Minna
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 8 pages
    2016-12-15
    View Record | View Original
  • Early care and education in disadvantaged contexts (birth to 9)
    Ebrahim, Hasina; Pascal, Chris
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 2 pages
    2016-12-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Challenges in establishing kindergarten education system in villages of Guizhou, China:...
    Vong, Keang-ieng P.; Li, Min Y.
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-12-03
    View Record | View Original
  • What is history? Views from a primary school teacher education programme
    Godsell, Sarah
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-12-03
    View Record | View Original
  • ‘Every mother dances her baby’: Contextually responsive narratives of early childhood...
    Okwany, Auma
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-12-03
    View Record | View Original
  • Disentangling the language effect in South African schools: Measuring the impact of...
    Spaull, Nicholas
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 20 pages
    2016-12-03
    View Record | View Original
  • Interrogating the ‘artificial’ divide between health and education for children aged...
    Munene, Aurelia; Okwany, Auma
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-12-03
    View Record | View Original
  • Preserving cultural heritage by teaching idioms to young learners as part of...
    Ramagoshi, Refilwe; Joubert, Ina
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-12-03
    View Record | View Original
  • Fostering children’s music in the mother tongue in early childhood education: A case...
    Kalinde, Bibian; Vermeulen, Dorette
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-12-03
    View Record | View Original
  • African indigenous care-giving practices: Stimulating early childhood development and...
    Wadende, Pamela; Oburu, Paul O.; Morara, Abel
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 7 pages
    2016-12-03
    View Record | View Original
  • Reliability of the Functional Auditory Performance Indicators to monitor progress in...
    Muller, Carlien; Kritzinger, Aletta; Pottas, Lidia; Bodenstein, Lovina
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-12-03
    View Record | View Original
  • Grade 4 children’s engagements in cross-sex relationships: A case from one South...
    Maphanga, Nonhlanhla P; Morojele, Pholoho J.
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-12-02
    View Record | View Original
  • Children’s perceptions of democratic values: Implications for democratic citizen education
    Botha, Annalie; Joubert, Ina; Hugo, Anna
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 8 pages
    2016-12-01
    View Record | View Original
  • An analysis of the Grade 3 Department of Basic Education workbooks as curriculum tools
    Hoadley, Ursula; Galant, Jaamia
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 12 pages
    2016-12-01
    View Record | View Original
  • A comparison of the effects of text-based instruction versus standards-based...
    Grossen, Bonnie; Muthukrishna, Nithi; Naidoo, Jaqueline T.
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 12 pages
    2016-11-29
    View Record | View Original
  • Science and mathematics teaching through local games in preschools of Botswana
    Bose, Kabita; Seetso, Grace
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-11-29
    View Record | View Original
  • Teachers’ discourses of literacy as social practice in advantaged and disadvantaged...
    Martin, Colwyn D.; Ebrahim, Hasina B.
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-11-29
    View Record | View Original
  • Differences in achievement between home language and language of learning in South...
    van Staden, Surette; Bosker, Roel; Bergbauer, Annika
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-11-29
    View Record | View Original
  • Child well-being in a rural context: Shifting to a social sustainability lens
    Naidoo, Jaqueline T.; Muthukrishna, Nithi
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-11-29
    View Record | View Original
  • Quality in South African early learning centres: Mothers’ and teachers’ views and...
    Van Heerden, Judy
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 11 pages
    2016-11-25
    View Record | View Original
  • Now and then: Revisiting early childhood teachers’ reactions to curriculum change
    Clasquin-Johnson, Mary G.
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-11-25
    View Record | View Original
  • Early childhood exposure to media violence: What parents and policymakers ought to know
    Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Oghia, Michael J; Melki, Jad; Pagani, Linda S
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 6 pages
    2016-11-23
    View Record | View Original
  • Counting skills intervention for low-performing first graders
    Mononen, Riikka; Aunio, Pirjo
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-09-23
    View Record | View Original
  • Mindful awareness in early childhood education
    Nieminen, Suvi H.; Sajaniemi, Nina
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-08-25
    View Record | View Original
  • The baseline assessment of Grade 1 learners’ literacy skills in a socio-economically...
    Wildschut, Zelda; Moodley, Trevor; Aronstam, Shelley
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-08-12
    View Record | View Original
  • Relations- and task-oriented behaviour of school leaders: Cases from primary schools in...
    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh; Rajbhandari, Smriti; Loock, Coert
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-08-12
    View Record | View Original
  • Cash transfers and early childhood care and education in Zimbabwe: A critical inquiry...
    Nyamukapa, Hilton
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-07-29
    View Record | View Original
  • Learning from disruptive classroom behaviour in a Grade 2 mathematics lesson
    Roberts, Nicky; Venkat, Hamsa
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-07-29
    View Record | View Original
  • A combined prosodic and linguistic treatment approach for language-communication skills...
    Kuschke, Silva; Vinck, Bart; Geertsema, Salomé
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 8 pages
    2016-07-29
    View Record | View Original
  • Interrogating quality in early childhood development: Working towards a South African...
    Excell, Lorayne
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-07-29
    View Record | View Original
  • Teaching reading in a multi-grade class: Teachers’ adaptive skills and teacher agency...
    Ramrathan, Labby; Mzimela, Jabu
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 2 (2016); 8 pages
    2016-07-29
    View Record | View Original
  • Retraction notice to: ‘Literacy lessons learnt from parents after attending a...
    Publishing, AOSIS
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 1 page
    2016-07-21
    View Record | View Original
  • Teachers’ perceptions of the quality of the new Expressive Arts textbooks for Malawi...
    Ghirwa, Grames; Naidoo, Devika
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-07-20
    View Record | View Original
  • Employing a multifocal view of ECD curriculum development at a rural settlement...
    Brink, Sonja
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 11 pages
    2016-06-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Improving South African third graders’ reading skills: Lessons learnt from the use of...
    Makumbila, Mohlanhledi P.; Rowland, Charline B.
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 8 pages
    2016-06-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Problematising child-headed households:The need for children’s participation in early...
    Pillay, Jace
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 8 pages
    2016-06-30
    View Record | View Original
  • RETRACTED: Literacy lessons learnt from parents after attending a seven-week...
    Cozett, Dawn; Condy, Janet
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-06-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Searching for research results to inform the design of an initial professional teacher...
    du Plooy, Lucinda; Zilindile, Mphumzi; Desai, Zubeida; de Wet, Benita; Holtman, Lorna; Julie, Cyril; Moolla, Nadine; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-06-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Strategies for the implementation of mathematics in Grade R: Teachers’ beliefs and...
    Barnard, Elna; Braund, Martin
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 8 pages
    2016-06-30
    View Record | View Original
  • The everyday experiences of early childhood caregivers: Challenges in an...
    Vorster, Adri; Sacks, Ashleigh; Amod, Zaytoon; Seabi, Joseph; Kern, Anwynne
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-06-24
    View Record | View Original
  • Literacy lessons learnt from parents in a community programme
    Cozett, Dawn; Condy, Janet
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-06-24
    View Record | View Original
  • Teachers’ beliefs about child participation in Grade R
    Shaik, Naseema
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 9 pages
    2016-06-24
    View Record | View Original
  • Maestro for a moment: A conceptual framework for music integration in Grade R
    van Vreden, Mignon
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 6, No 1 (2016); 10 pages
    2016-06-21
    View Record | View Original
  • Working with children with special needs in Finnish kindergartens: Professionals and/or...
    Nislin, Mari; Paananen, Maiju; Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina; Sims, Margaret
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Effect of visual feedback on classroom noise levels
    van Tonder, Jessica; Woite, Nadia; Strydom, Suzaan; Mahomed, Faheema; Swanepoel, De Wet
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • At-risk student teachers’ attitudes and aspirations as learners and teachers of...
    Moodley, Trevor; Adendorff, Stanley A.; Pather, Subethra
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Navigating professional roles in early literacy intervention: exploring the experiences...
    Oosthuizen, Helena; Klop, Daleen; Visser, Monique
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Collegial teaming for inclusive education using photovoice as tool
    Geduld, Deidre C.
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Play in Grade R classrooms: Diverse teacher perceptions and practices
    Aronstam, Shelley; Braund, Martin
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Research in the interest of children: SAJCE after five years
    Henning, Elizabeth
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Towards a leadership programme for primary school principals as instructional leaders
    Naidoo, Parvathy; Petersen, Nadine
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Strengthening maths learning dispositions through ‘math clubs’
    Graven, Mellony
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Work and play in early childhood education: Views from Nigeria and South Africa
    Ogunyemi, Florence T.; Ragpot, Lara
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Online supplementary mathematics tuition in a first-year childhood teacher education...
    Fonseca, Kathleen; Petersen, Nadine
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Initiating the learning processes at the preschool and lower primary level: Challenges...
    Streit, Christine; K. David, Christine; Hildebrandt, Elke
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Foundation-phase children’s causal reasoning in astronomy, biology, chemistry and physics
    Naude, Francois
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
    2016-02-06
    View Record | View Original
  • Policy research comes of age in South Africa
    Taylor, Nick; Mabogoane, Thabo
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 2 (2015); 16 pages
    2015-12-11
    View Record | View Original
  • Continuous assessment and matriculation examination marks – An empirical examination
    van der Berg, Servaas; Shepherd, Debra
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 2 (2015); 17 pages
    2015-12-07
    View Record | View Original
  • Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence
    Wills, Gabrielle
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 2 (2015); 28 pages
    2015-12-07
    View Record | View Original
  • Teacher characteristics and student performance: An analysis using hierarchical linear...
    Armstrong, Paula
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 2 (2015); 23 pages
    2015-12-07
    View Record | View Original
  • Can pre-grade R be the stepping stone to social equality in South Africa
    Kotze, Janeli
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 2 (2015); 27 pages
    2015-12-07
    View Record | View Original
  • What the Annual National Assessments can tell us about learning deficits over the...
    van der Berg, Servaas
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 2 (2015); 16 pages
    2015-12-07
    View Record | View Original
  • An overview of key datasets in education in South Africa
    Van Wyk, Chris
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 2 (2015); 25 pages
    2015-12-07
    View Record | View Original
  • Examining oral reading fluency among Grade 5 rural English Second Language (ESL)...
    Draper, Kim; Spaull, Nic
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 2 (2015); 34 pages
    2015-12-07
    View Record | View Original
  • The role of working memory in childhood education: Five questions and answers
    Cockcroft, Kate
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 18 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • Assessment literacy of foundation phase teachers: An exploratory study
    Kanjee, Anil; Mthembu, Jane
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 26 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • Music education in the Grade R classroom: How three teachers learned in a participatory...
    Delport, Aletta; Cloete, Erna
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 21 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • Teachers and the developing mind of the individual child
    Henning, Elizabeth
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 4 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • The Nigerian Integrated Early Childhood Development Policy: Perspectives on literacy...
    Newman, Linda; Obed, Loveth
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 17 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • Visual arts and the teaching of the mathematical concepts of shape and space in Grade R...
    Wilmot, Dianne; Schäfer, Jean
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 23 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • Fostering pre-service teachers’ motivation-related practical wisdom through a mentoring...
    Loukomies, Anni; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 15 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • The school readiness performance of a group of Grade R learners in primary schools in...
    Janse van Rensburg, Ona
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 19 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • A retrospective case report on demographic changes of learners at a school for children...
    van Biljon, Sumari; Kritzinger, Alta; Geertsema, Salomé
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 20 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • Stories of change: The case of a foundation phase teacher professional development...
    Brown, Bruce; Wilmot, Di; Ash, Margie Paton
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 19 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • The South African national school curriculum: Implications for collaboration between...
    Wium, Anna-Marie; Louw, Brenda
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 23 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • Exploring the complexities of describing foundation phase teachers’ professional...
    Bertram, Carol; Christiansen, Iben; Mukeredzi, Tabitha
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 5, No 1 (2015); 22 pages
    2015-09-04
    View Record | View Original
  • ‘Learning walks’: Dialogic spaces for integrating theory and practice in a renewed BEd...
    Zinn, Denise; Geduld, Deidre; Delport, Aletta; Jordaan, Christina
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 19 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Critical reflections on the PGCE (Foundation Phase) qualification in South Africa
    Verbeek, Clare
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 15 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Service learning in foundation phase teacher education: Experiential learning...
    Petker, Gadija Mia; Petersen, Nadine
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 14 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • The reading literacy profiles of first-year BEd foundation phase students
    Nel, Carisma; Adam, Aninda
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 19 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Learning support pedagogy for children who struggle to develop the concepts underlying...
    Fritz-Stratmann, Annemarie; Ehlert, Antje; Klüsener, Gabriele
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 23 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Reflections on the development of a pre-service language curriculum for the BEd...
    Desai, Zubeida; Nomlomo, Vuyokazi
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 15 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Towards a governance and management model for teaching schools in South Africa
    Gravett, Sarah; Loock, Coert
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 18 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • A research base for teaching in primary school: a coherent scholarly focus on the...
    Osman, Ruksana; Booth, Shirley
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 15 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • ‘Minding the gap?’ A national foundation phase teacher supply and demand analysis:...
    Green, Whitfield; Adendorff, Michael; Mathebula, B
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 23 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Foundation phase teachers’ (limited) knowledge of geometry
    Luneta, Kakoma
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 16 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • The status and the power of a foundation phase teacher
    Petersen, Nadine; Gravett, Sarah
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 2 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • Becoming a (male) foundation phase teacher: A need in South African schools?
    Mashiya, Nontokoza
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 3 (2014); 13 pages
    2014-12-30
    View Record | View Original
  • A mathematics competence test for Grade 1 children migrates from Germany to South Africa
    Fritz-Stratmann, Annemarie Agnes; Balzer, Lars; Herholdt, Roelien; Ragpot, Lara; Ehlert, Antje
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 2 (2014); 20 pages
    2014-12-24
    View Record | View Original
  • A foundation for foundation phase teacher education: Making wise educational judgements
    Murris, Karin; Verbeek, Clare
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 2 (2014); 17 pages
    2014-12-24
    View Record | View Original
  • Approaches to teaching primary level mathematics
    Long, Caroline; Dunne, Tim
    South African Journal of Childhood Education; Vol 4, No 2 (2014); 20 pages
    2014-12-24
    View Record | View Original
301 - 400 of 483 Items    << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 
ADVERTISEMENT