Heterophoria, fusional vergence, and near point of convergence in Sudanese hospital-based population

African Vision and Eye Health

Field Value
Title Heterophoria, fusional vergence, and near point of convergence in Sudanese hospital-based population
Creator Alrasheed, Saif H. Aldakhil, Sulaiman
Subject — heterophoria; esophoria; exophoria; positive and negative fusional vergence; diplopia
Description Background: Fusional vergence amplitude is the amount of convergence and divergence that can be induced before fusion is lost and fusional vergence amplitude controls heterophoria.Aim: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between near heterophoria, near fusional vergence (NFV), and near point of convergence (NPC).Setting: Al-Neelain Eye Hospital Khartoum, Sudan.Methods: A hospital-based prospective study from February to October 2019, included 230 patients with age range of 15–30 years and mean age and standard deviation of 19.46 ± 3.33 years. The alternate cover test with prism was used to measure near heterophoria and a prism bar was used to measure quantity of fusional vergence. All measurements were taken at near heterophoria (0.33 m). Then the associations between near heterophoria, NFV and NPC were assessed.Results: The most common heterophoria at near among the participants was exophoria: 200 (87.0%). Reported complaints of asthenopia were commonly found among these exophoric patients: 106 (86.9%) (P = 0.735). Positive fusional vergence (PFV) to the break point varied according to the forms of heterophoria (P = 0.003). Esophoria had a higher PFV to break point than exophoria (30.83 ± 8.79Δ compared to 25.59 ± 10.07Δ). Negative fusional vergence at the break and recovery points were higher among those with exophoria and lower in esophoria (P ˃ 0.05). The NPC differed by the type of heterophoria (P = 0.01), with exophoria and slightly receded NPC (8.38 cm ± 3.33 cm) than for participants with esophoria (6.77 cm ± 1.52 cm).Conclusions: Exophoria was the most common type of near heterophoria, with asthenopia being the most reported complaint. Esophoria was found to be strongly associated with high PFV. Exophoria, on the contrary, is related to significant high NFV at the blur, beak, and recovery point. The NPC differed significantly by the type of near heterophoria, with exophoria having more receded NPC compared to those with esophoria.Contribution: This study provides information on the commonest type of near heterophorias among a sample of Sudanese adolescents and young adults, namely exophoria. Near point of convergence and NFV at break and recovery points were significantly different according to forms of near heterophoria.
Publisher AOSIS
Date 2024-02-05
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion — —
Format text/html application/epub+zip text/xml application/pdf
Identifier 10.4102/aveh.v83i1.869
Source African Vision and Eye Health; Vol 83, No 1 (2024); 6 pages 2410-1516 2413-3183
Language eng
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https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/869/2292 https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/869/2293 https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/869/2294 https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/869/2295
Coverage Africa — —
Rights Copyright (c) 2024 Saif H. Alrasheed, Sulaiman Aldakhil https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0