The prevalence of chronic kidney disease among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in central South Africa

South African Family Practice

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Title The prevalence of chronic kidney disease among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in central South Africa
Creator Mhundwa, William Joubert, Gina Mofokeng, Thabiso R.P.
Subject — chronic kidney disease; type 2 diabetes mellitus; end-stage renal disease; diabetic kidney disease; risk factors; control; albuminuria; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Description Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of CKD among T2DM patients in Africa is 22.0%. The cut-off age for dialysing diabetic patients in the resource-limited state sector in South Africa is 50 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who develop CKD are likely to be excluded from chronic dialysis and rely on control of risk factors, including blood pressure and blood glucose levels, to prevent CKD progression. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CKD among T2DM patients attending the diabetes clinic at Pelonomi Academic Hospital, Bloemfontein.Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, medical records of patients (January 2016 and December 2018) were reviewed to collect demographic and clinical information.Results: In total, 244 records were reviewed. Sixty-one (25.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 20% – 30.8%) T2DM patients had CKD. The rate of CKD was slightly higher in males (n = 24/81; 29.6%) compared with females (n = 37/163; 22.7%). Most patients with CKD (n = 58; 95.1%) were 50 years of age. Only 17.8% of patients achieved a glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of 7.0%. Blood pressure was controlled in 14.3% of hypertensive patients. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors were used by 78.6% of patients.Conclusion: A high prevalence of clinically significant CKD among T2DM patients with poor prospects of chronic dialysis in a resource-limited setting was observed. The risk factors for CKD development and progression should be adequately managed in T2DM patients.Contribution: This study emphasises the need for further research and innovation to improve outcomes of T2DM patients with CKD in resource-constrained settings. 
Publisher AOSIS
Date 2023-05-29
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion — —
Format text/html application/epub+zip text/xml application/pdf
Identifier 10.4102/safp.v65i1.5663
Source South African Family Practice; Vol 65, No 1 (2023): Part 2; 6 pages 2078-6204 2078-6190
Language eng
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Rights Copyright (c) 2023 William Mhundwa, Gina Joubert, Thabiso R.P. Mofokeng