The profile of Black South African men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the Free State, South Africa

South African Family Practice

Field Value
Title The profile of Black South African men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the Free State, South Africa
Creator Benedict, Matthew O.A. Steinberg, Wilhelm J. Claassen, Frederik M. Mofolo, Nathaniel
Subject — prostate cancer; Black men; African men; risk factors; social determinants; disease stage and grade
Description Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) ranks high in terms of morbidity and mortality, especially in Africa. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening remains a practical method of screening for and thereby detecting PCa early, especially among African men who are more negatively affected. Modifiable risk factors for PCa are mostly behavioural and lifestyle. Understanding community-specific determinants is important when developing health promotion interventions.Objective: This study aimed to determine the profile of African men with PCa in the Free State, South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using case record information and self-administered questionnaires among 341 African men with PCa attending the oncology and urology clinics of a tertiary hospital.Result: Participants’ median age at diagnosis was 66 years. Only 76 (22.3%) participants had ever heard of PCa prior to being diagnosed with the disease, 36 (47.4%) of whom had ever had screening performed. The majority (n = 298, 87.4%) were symptomatic; 50% sought medical help within six months. At diagnosis, 133 (39.0%) men presented with stage T3 or T4 disease, 75 (22.0%) with metastatic disease and 84 (24.6%) with Gleason score ≥ 8. Factors associated with advanced and high-grade disease included smoking, decreased sunlight exposure and physical activity, relatively increased ingestion of dairy products and red meat. Factors associated with early stage and low-grade disease included relatively increased ingestion of fruits, vegetables and fish.Conclusion: Advanced and high-grade PCa disease is not uncommon among men ≥ 60 years in this study setting. Certain modifiable risk factors associated with advanced disease were established in this study. The majority had lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) prior to PCa diagnosis, but they were of poor health-seeking behaviour. Although there seems not to be a systematic delay in the definitive diagnosis and initiation of treatment for PCa, there is a need to improve on health education and awareness in the study setting.
Publisher AOSIS
Contributor The study was conducted with financial assistance from the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, through the Three Schools of Medicine Research and Postgraduate Committee.
Date 2023-01-10
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion — —
Format text/html application/epub+zip text/xml application/pdf
Identifier 10.4102/safp.v65i1.5553
Source South African Family Practice; Vol 65, No 1 (2023): Part 1; 10 pages 2078-6204 2078-6190
Language eng
The following web links (URLs) may trigger a file download or direct you to an alternative webpage to gain access to a publication file format of the published article:
Coverage — — —
Rights Copyright (c) 2023 Matthew O.A. Benedict, Wilhelm J. Steinberg, Frederik M. Claassen, Nathaniel Mofolo