Multiple opportunistic infections (pulmonary tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex and parvovirus B19) in a single patient

Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine

Field Value
Title Multiple opportunistic infections (pulmonary tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex and parvovirus B19) in a single patient
Creator John, Midhun T. Venter, Michelle Vaughan, Jenifer Black, Marianne Prince, Daniel Luke, Aishwarya M. John, Mithra
Subject — MAC; parvovirus B19; tuberculosis; HIV; multiple organisms
Description Introduction: HIV infection is a common disease in the South African population. The virus can lead to the development of many opportunistic infections. This case study examines co-infection with three opportunistic infections and the need for clinical suspicion of infections in our HIV population.Patient presentation: A 36-year-old unemployed female residing in Soweto, Johannesburg, presented at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital (CHBAH). She was HIV positive, defaulting treatment, with no other comorbidities. She presented to CHBAH with general body weakness, diarrhoea, cough and constitutional symptoms; clinically she appeared pale and chronically ill. A differential diagnosis was made of multiple infections co-inhabiting the patient.Management and outcome: The patient had blood, sputum, radiological and invasive bone marrow aspiration, and trephine biopsies completed. The investigations revealed that she was co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and parvovirus B19. The TB and disseminated MAC infection were managed with rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and azithromycin, and reinitiation of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment was planned on further follow-up of the ARV drug resistance test. The parvovirus B19 infection was managed with immunoglobulins (Polygam) and steroids (prednisone). She was discharged successfully for further follow-up.Conclusion: A thorough history, clinical examination and subsequent targeted investigations are vital to arriving at the correct diagnosis or diagnoses. The case presented above serves to illustrate how three life-threatening opportunistic infections (OIs), all with differing treatments, may present in a single patient. Clinicians caring for immunosuppressed patients need to remain vigilant for the presence of multiple OIs occurring simultaneously.
Publisher AOSIS
Date 2022-01-25
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion — —
Format text/html application/epub+zip text/xml application/pdf
Identifier 10.4102/sajhivmed.v23i1.1319
Source Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine; Vol 23, No 1 (2022); 5 pages 2078-6751 1608-9693
Language eng
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Rights Copyright (c) 2022 Midhun T. John, Michelle Venter, Jenifer Vaughan, Marianne Black, Daniel Prince, Aishwarya M. Luke, Mithra John