The initial intravenous treatment of a human immunodeficiency virus-infected child with complicated abdominal tuberculosis

Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine

Field Value
Title The initial intravenous treatment of a human immunodeficiency virus-infected child with complicated abdominal tuberculosis
Creator Enimil, Anthony K. Eley, Brian Nuttall, James
Subject — intravenous; antituberculosis; tuberculosis; child none; ARV medications
Description Introduction: There is very limited published experience with intravenous (IV) antituberculosis (anti-TB) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) especially in children. We have described a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected child with complicated abdominal tuberculosis who was initially treated with IV anti-TB and a partially IV ART regimen before transitioning to oral therapy.Patient presentation: A 3-year-old boy presented with hypovolaemic shock with a 3-day history of inability to pass stools, abdominal distension and bile-stained vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound and X-ray showed small-bowel obstruction. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody testing was positive, and Cluster of Differentiation (CD)4+ lymphocyte count was 56 cells/mL (15%). Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/Rifampicin (RIF) Ultra and TB culture on induced sputum detected MTB complex sensitive to rifampicin and isoniazid.Management and outcome: Following laparotomy and closure of bowel perforations, the child was commenced on IV rifampicin, moxifloxacin and amikacin. Amikacin was stopped after 3 days because of nephrotoxicity, and meropenem and IV linezolid were added. After 20 days, ART comprising IV zidovudine, oral lamivudine solution, oral lopinavir/ritonavir solution and additional oral ritonavir solution for super boosting was commenced. By day 40, the patient was well established on oral feeds and was switched to standard oral anti-TB medications. Sputum examined 1 month after starting the treatment was found culture-negative for MTB. After 4 months of treatment, the HIV viral load was 100 copies/mL. He completed a total of 12 months of anti-TB treatment.Conclusion: Despite limited experience and few available IV formulations of standard anti-TB and ARV medications, initial IV therapy may be beneficial for patients in whom oral medication is not an option.
Publisher AOSIS
Date 2020-08-24
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion — —
Format text/html application/epub+zip text/xml application/pdf
Identifier 10.4102/sajhivmed.v21i1.1121
Source Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine; Vol 21, No 1 (2020); 3 pages 2078-6751 1608-9693
Language eng
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Rights Copyright (c) 2020 Anthony K. Enimil, Brian Eley, James Nuttall