Record Details

Expression of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNRs in placentas of HIV-positive patients

Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine


 
 
Field Value
 
Title Expression of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNRs in placentas of HIV-positive patients
 
Creator Pillay, Komala; Department of Anatomical Pathology, University of Cape Town, and Red Cross Children’s War Memorial Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Cloete, M; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa McLeod, H; Department of Anatomical Pathology, University of Cape Town, and Red Cross Children’s War Memorial Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
 
Subject HIV; placenta; virus transmission; DC-SIGN; DC-SIGNR
Description Background. Human dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM3)-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is a mannose-binding lectin that initiates interaction between dendritic cells and resting T-lymphocytes. DC-SIGN is highly expressed in placental tissue on dendritic cells and Hofbauer cells, and it is suggested that HIV may become adsorbed to DC-SIGN on Hofbauer cells as part of the mechanism of mother-to-child HIV transmission. A possible mechanism of transfer of the virus from the Hofbauer cells to the fetus is the subsequent adsorption to DC-SIGN-related molecules (DC-SIGNRs), present on immediately adjacent capillary vascular endothelium. However, data on DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression in the placenta are few.Methods. Forty term placentas from HIV-positive mothers and 21 term placentas from HIV-negative mothers underwent immunohistochemistry staining for DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression. Five random sets of 10 villi were assessed, and the average number of positive cells were counted in each case. In addition, where possible, maternal and cord blood viral loads and maternal CD4+ counts were performed in the HIV-positive group only.Results. The median maternal CD4+ count was 377 cells/µl and 27% of participants had undetectable viral loads; the median detectable viral load was 3.72 log. Most (97%) of the cord bloods tested in infants from HIV-positive mothers had lower than detectable viral loads. HIV-positive cases had significantly greater expression of both DC-SIGNRs (median values in HIV-positive cases, 14.5 positive cells/10 villi (pc/10villi), compared with 11 pc/10villi in HIV-negative cases, p=0.020) and DC-SIGN (median value in HIV-positive cases, 26.5 pc/10villi, compared with 23 pc/10villi in HIV-negative cases, p=0.037). DC-SIGNR expression was also noted in Hofbauer cells and decidual macrophages in addition to endothelium (reported currently). There was no difference in expression of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNRs in patients with or without chorioamnionitis, but there was an inverse relationship between DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression and maternal CD4+ counts in HIV-positive cases. Conclusion. Both DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression were higher in placentas from HIV-positive mothers compared with HIV-negative cases. These lectins may be potential new therapeutic targets for preventing vertical transmission of HIV.
 
Publisher AOSIS Publishing
 
Date 2014-09-08
 
Type
Format application/pdf
Identifier 10.4102/hivmed.v15i3.8
 
Source Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine; Vol 15, No 3 (2014); 97-101
 
Language en
 
Rights Copyright information Ownership of copyright in terms of the Work remains with the authors.The authors retain the non-exclusive right to do anything they wish with the Work, provided attribution is given to the place and detail of original publication, as set out in the official citation of the Work published in the journal. The retained right specifically includes the right to post the Work on the authors’ or their institutions’ websites or institutional repository.Publication and user license The authors grant the title owner and the publisher an irrevocable license and first right and perpetual subsequent right to (a) publish, reproduce, distribute, display and store the Work in  any form/medium, (b) to translate the Work into other languages, create adaptations, summaries or extracts of the Work or other derivative works based on the Work and exercise all of the rights set forth in (a) above in such translations, adaptations, summaries, extracts and derivative works, (c) to license others to do any or all of the above, and (d) to register the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for the Definitive Work.The authors acknowledge and accept the user licence under which the Work will  be published as set out in http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/za/legalcode (Creative Commons Attribution License South Africa)The undersigned warrant that they have the authority to license these publication rights and that no portion of the copyright to the Work has been assigned or licensed previously to any other party.Disclaimer: The publisher, editors and title owner accept no responsibility for any statement made or opinion expressed by any other person in this Work. Consequently, they will not be liable for any loss or damage sustained by any reader as a result of his or her action upon any statement or opinion in this Work. In cases where a manuscript is NOT accepted for publication by the editorial board, the portions of this agreement regarding the publishing licensing shall be null and void and the authors will be free to submit this manuscript to any other publication for first publication.Our copyright policies are author-friendly and protect the rights of our authors and publishing partners.