Muscle tremors observed in white rhinoceroses immobilised with either etorphine–azaperone or etorphine–midazolam: An initial study

Journal of the South African Veterinary Association


 
 
Field Value
 
Title Muscle tremors observed in white rhinoceroses immobilised with either etorphine–azaperone or etorphine–midazolam: An initial study
 
Creator Nasr, Mary Meyer, Leith C.R. Buss, Peter Fàbregas, María C. Gleed, Robin D. Boesch, Jordyn M. Pohlin, Friederike
 
Subject Veterinary medicine; anesthesiology; wildlife management white rhinoceros; muscle tremors; etorphine; midazolam; azaperone; immobilisation; muscle relaxation; butorphanol
Description Etorphine–azaperone is the most commonly used drug combination for chemical immobilisation of free-ranging white rhinoceroses, but causes several profound physiological disturbances, including muscle tremors. The addition of benzodiazepine sedatives, such as midazolam, has been proposed to reduce the muscular rigidity and tremors in immobilised rhinoceroses. Twenty-three free-ranging, sub-adult white rhinoceros bulls were darted and captured using a combination of etorphine plus either azaperone or midazolam. Skeletal muscle tremors were visually evaluated and scored by an experienced veterinarian, and tremor scores and distance run were compared between groups using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. No statistical differences were observed in tremor scores (p = 0.435) or distance run (p = 0.711) between the two groups, and no correlation between these variables was detected (r = –0.628; p = 0.807). Etorphine–midazolam was as effective as etorphine–azaperone at immobilising rhinoceroses, with animals running similar distances. Although the addition of midazolam to the etorphine did not reduce tremor scores compared to azaperone, it might have other beneficial immobilising effects in rhinoceroses, and further investigation is necessary to elucidate possible methods of reducing muscle tremoring during chemical immobilisation of rhinoceroses.
 
Publisher AOSIS
 
Contributor SANParks Veterinary Wildlife Services Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association National Research Foundation (NRF) International Rhino Foundation Faculty of Veterinary Science of the University of Pretoria Wildlife Pharmaceuticals
Date 2021-06-28
 
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion — —
Format text/html application/epub+zip text/xml application/pdf
Identifier 10.4102/jsava.v92i0.2142
 
Source Journal of the South African Veterinary Association; Vol 92 (2021); 3 pages 2224-9435 1019-9128
 
Language eng
 
Relation https://journals.jsava.aosis.co.za/index.php/jsava/article/view/2142/2730 https://journals.jsava.aosis.co.za/index.php/jsava/article/view/2142/2731 https://journals.jsava.aosis.co.za/index.php/jsava/article/view/2142/2732 https://journals.jsava.aosis.co.za/index.php/jsava/article/view/2142/2733
 
Coverage South Africa — white rhinoceros; free ranging; juvenile bulls
Rights Copyright (c) 2021 Mary Nasr, Leith C.R. Meyer, Peter Buss, Maria C. Fàbregas, Robin D. Gleed, Jordyn M. Boesch, Friederike Pohlin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0