A review exploring convergence insufficiency in younger populations and e-devices in the digital era

African Vision and Eye Health

Field Value
Title A review exploring convergence insufficiency in younger populations and e-devices in the digital era
Creator Pillay, Renaishia Munsamy, Alvin J.
Subject Optometry; Vision Science convergence insufficiency; binocular vision disorders; e-learning; digital eye strain; computer vision syndrome; primary school children
Description Background: The advancement of the fourth industrial revolution has increased the penetrance of e-devices among younger populations, particularly with e-learning technology which has become widespread due to special circumstances such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.Aim: The purpose of this review is to explore the prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI) in younger populations and to map any associations between CI, near work and e-device usage.Method: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Elsevier, PubMed, Medline and Ebscohost databases. The literature search used the following keywords in various combinations: ‘Convergence Insufficiency’, ‘Binocular vision status of primary school children’, ‘E-learning’, ‘M-learning’, ‘Computer vision syndrome’, ‘Digital eye syndrome’, ‘E-devices and children’.Results: The observed prevalence of CI ranges from 5.46% to 13.00% among non-clinical studies and from 3.50% to 18.00% among clinical studies. The prevalence among primary school children ranges from 6.80% to 31.40% whilst CI among high school children may be as prevalent as 32.60%, depending on the diagnostic criteria employed. There is mixed evidence showing the association between screen time and myopia. No studies were identified showing a direct association between CI and e-device use.Conclusion: Convergence insufficiency has proven to be a prevalent condition among both young children and young adult populations. There is a need for studies to investigate the prevalence of CI in younger populations who learn in a digital environment. This may highlight exposure to the modifiable factor of screen time in managing the condition in the context of a tech-infused lifestyle.
Publisher AOSIS
Date 2021-06-14
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion — Review
Format text/html application/epub+zip text/xml application/pdf
Identifier 10.4102/aveh.v80i1.623
Source African Vision and Eye Health; Vol 80, No 1 (2021); 12 pages 2410-1516 2413-3183
Language eng
Relation https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/623/1591 https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/623/1592 https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/623/1595 https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/623/1596
Coverage Africa; South Africa; Kwa-Zulu Natal; Durban; Westville — Primary school children
Rights Copyright (c) 2021 Renaishia Pillay, Alvin J. Munsamy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0