Diagnosis and staging of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

African Vision and Eye Health

Field Value
Title Diagnosis and staging of ocular surface squamous neoplasia
Creator Höllhumer, Roland Michelow, Pamela Williams, Susan
Subject Ophthalmology, anterior segment, cornea, oncology conjunctival neoplasm; squamous cell cancer; conjunctival imprint cytology; liquid-based cytology; conjunctival histology; optical coherence tomography; confocal microscopy; methylene blue; toluidine blue; ultrasound biomicroscopy
Description Background: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is the most common ocular tumour. The diagnosis of OSSN is based on clinical suspicion and confirmed by various diagnostic modalities, of which histology is the gold standard. With the move to less invasive management options such as topical chemo- or immunotherapy, less invasive diagnostic options have come to the fore.Aim: The purpose of this article was to review the current staging and diagnostic modalities for OSSN with a focus on less invasive modalities.Method: A literature review was performed for publications on ocular surface neoplasia and diagnostic modalities.Results: Histology is the gold standard for diagnosing OSSN. Cytology has been shown to be a simple, repeatable and minimally invasive diagnostic modality, which also allows for additional testing such as polymerase chain reaction. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography provides a non-contact method of evaluating the ocular surface, with OSSN showing a thickened hyper-reflective epithelium, abrupt transition zone and demarcation line. Vital dyes are used less commonly with high sensitivity, but lower specificity for OSSN. Finally, confocal microscopy provides en-face images of the ocular surface, with OSSN showing a classic ‘starry night’ appearance.Conclusion: Histology remains the gold standard for diagnosis; however, with the increasing use of topical therapy for OSSN, there has been an increase in the uptake of less invasive diagnostic modalities.
Publisher AOSIS
Date 2020-12-14
Type info:eu-repo/semantics/article info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion — Review
Format text/html application/epub+zip text/xml application/pdf
Identifier 10.4102/aveh.v79i1.590
Source African Vision and Eye Health; Vol 79, No 1 (2020); 8 pages 2410-1516 2413-3183
Language eng
Relation https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/590/1383 https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/590/1382 https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/590/1384 https://avehjournal.org/index.php/aveh/article/view/590/1381
Coverage South Africa — —
Rights Copyright (c) 2020 Roland Hollhumer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0